Estimating the crash reducing effect of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) for vulnerable road users




Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS), real-world evaluation, vulnerable road users


Vulnerable road users (VRUs) are frequently involved in road traffic crashes worldwide, and the most serious consequences often occur in collisions with motor vehicles. Countermeasures such as advanced driver assistance systems (ADASs) for have been developed and implemented in vehicles to reduce these crashes. Estimations of the effectiveness of these systems are so far dominated by prospective studies; only a few analyze real-world crash data. The objective of this study was to estimate the crash-reducing effects of the VRU ADAS systems in car-to-pedestrian and car-to-bicycle crashes involving Volvo cars in Sweden using real-world crash data. Car-to-pedestrian and car-to-bicycle collisions across Sweden from 2015–2020 (in which the car was moving forward) were identified using insurance claims at If P&C insurance. Volvo car models with ADAS VRU and comparable Volvo models without the system were selected. Poisson regression was used to estimate the effect of the VRU ADAS on the crash rate, calculated per insured vehicle-years. For the second generation of VRU ADAS, the straight crossing path (SCP) and parallel (Longitudinal) crash rate was found to be 12% less in car-to-pedestrian/bicycle crashes—23% less in car-to-pedestrian crashes and 6% less in car-to-bicycle crashes. However, no results were statistically significant. There was no difference in crash rates when evaluating all crash situations where the car was moving forward. The limitation of this study is the low number of crashes. Reducing crashes and injuries in vehicle-to-VRU conflicts is of utmost importance for fulfilling the aims highlighted in Agenda 2030. Improving ADAS to better avoid collisions with pedestrians and cyclists has the potential to greatly improve traffic safety; future generations of the system are expected to increase VRU safety benefits. Measuring ADAS effects in real-world traffic and interpreting and relating the results are essential to ensure that future systems improve VRU safety.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Irene Isaksson Hellman, If P&C Insurance, Sweden

Irene Isaksson Hellman is a traffic safety researcher at If P&C Insurance, Sweden. She has a Fil. Lic. in Mathematical Statistics at the University of Gothenburg. Irene has been working with traffic safety and accident analysis since 1988, first at Volvo Car Corporation and since 2010 at If P&C Insurance.
Her main research areas are vulnerable road users and evaluation of ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistance Systems) based on real-world crashes.

CRediT contribution: Conceptualization, Data curation, Formal analysis, Validation, Writing—original draft, Writing—review & editing.

Magdalena Lindman, If P&C Insurance, Sweden

Magdalena Lindman works with traffic safety at If P&C Insurance, Sweden. She was previously affiliated with Volvo Cars, where she worked as a technichal expert with traffic safety data analysis at Volvo Cars Safety Centre for more than 20 years. She is leading the Traffic Safety Team at If that currently has a strong focus on car-to-VRU crashes and ADAS evaluations. Magdalena's educations cover Mechanical Engineering and Crash Safety (Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden), and Psychology (University of Gothenburg, Sweden).

CRediT contribution: Conceptualization, Investigation, Validation, Writing—original draft, Writing—review & editing.


AAAM, (2005), 'The Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS), 2005 Revision', Association of the Advancement of Automotive Medicine (Des Plaines, IL, USA), 2005 Revision

Abdel-Aty, M., Q. Cai, Y. Wu, O. Zheng (2022), 'Evaluation of automated emergency braking system’s avoidance of pedestrian crashes at intersections under occluded conditions within a virtual simulator', Accident Analysis and Prevention, 176, 106797. DOI:

Amoros, E., J.-L. Martin, B. Laumon (2006), 'Under-reporting of road crash casualties in France', Accident Analysis & Prevention, 38(4), 627–635. DOI:

Aultman-Hall, L., M. G. Kaltenecker (1999), 'Toronto bicycle commuter safety rates', Accident Analysis & Prevention, 31(6), 675–686. DOI:

CATARC, (2018), 'C-NCAP Management Regulation', China Automotive Technology and Research Center.

Chajmowicz, H., J. Saadé, S. Cuny (2019), 'Prospective assessment of the effectiveness of autonomous emergency braking in car-to-cyclist accidents in France', Traffic Injury Prevention, 20(sup2), S20–S25. DOI:

Char, F., T. Serre, S. Compigne, P. P. Guillen (2020), 'Car-to-cyclist forward collision warning effectiveness evaluation: a parametric analysis on reconstructed real accident cases', International Journal of Crashworthiness, 27(1), 34–43. DOI:

Chidester, A., R. Isenberg (2001), 'Final Report - The Pedestrian Crash Data Study', 17th International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles (ESV), Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 4–7 June 2001,

Cicchino, J. B. (2023), 'Effects of a bicycle detection system on police-reported bicycle crashes', 27th International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles (ESV), Yokohama, Japan, 3–6 April 2023,

Cicchino, J. B. (2022), 'Effects of automatic emergency braking systems on pedestrian crash risk', Accident Analysis & Prevention, 172, 106686. DOI:

Cuerden, R., M. Pittman, E. Dodson, J. Hill (2008), 'The UK on the spot accident data collection study–phase II report', Department for Transport Road Safety, Research Report 73

Deng, B., H. Wang, J. Chen, X. Wang, X. Chen (2013), 'Traffic accidents in Shanghai: general statistics and in-depth analysis', 23rd International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles (ESV), Seoul, Republic of Korea, 27–30 May 2013,

Denk, F., P. Brunner, W. Huber, M. Margreiter, K. Bogenberger, R. Kates (2022), 'Assessment of traffic safety interventions using virtual randomized controlled trials: potential of connected and automated driving including V2X for collision reduction at urban intersections', 25th International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSC), Macau, China, 8–12 October 2022. DOI:

Eclipse Foundation, (n/d), 'OpenPASS Documentation',, accessed 2023-10-31.

Edwards, M., A. Nathanson, M. Wisch (2014), 'Estimate of Potential Benefit for Europe of Fitting Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB) Systems for Pedestrian Protection to Passenger Cars', Traffic Injury Prevention, 15(sup1), S173–S182. DOI:

Elvik, R., A. B. Mysen (1999), 'Incomplete accident reporting, Meta-Analysis of Studies Made in 13 Countries', Transportation Research Record, 1665(1), 133–140. DOI:

Erbsmehl, C. (2009), 'Simulation of Real Crashes as a Method for Estimating the Potential Benefits of Advanced Safety Technologies', 21st International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles (ESV), Stuttgart, Germany, 15–18 June 2009,

Eriksson, J., P. Henriksson, M. Rizzi (2022), 'Oskyddade trafikanters inblandning i olyckor och deras skadeutfall: En jämförande studie mellan fotgängare, cyklister, mopedister och motorcyklister [Vulnerable road users involvement in accidents and their injury outcome: a comparative study between pedestrians, cyclists, mopedists and motorcyclists]', Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, VTI rapport 1133

EuroNCAP, (2015), 'Test protocol—AEB VRU systems', European New Car Assessment Programme, version 1.0.1

EuroNCAP, (2017), 'Test protocol—AEB VRU systems', European New Car Assessment Programme , version 2.0

Feng, S., X. Yan, H. Sun, Y. Feng, H. X. Liu (2021), 'Intelligent driving intelligence test for autonomous vehicles with naturalistic and adversarial environment', Nature Communications, 12(748). DOI:

Forsman, Å., O. Eriksson (2023), 'Bortfallsuppräkning Strada: Underlag till metod som baseras på både polis- och sjukvårdsrapporter [Under-reporting in Strada: a method based on both police and medical reports]', Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, VTI PM 2023:4

Fredriksson, R., K. Fredriksson, J. Strandroth (2014), 'Pre-crash motion and conditions of bicyclist-to-car crashes in Sweden', International Cycling Safety Conference (ICSC), Gothenburg, Sweden, 18–19 November 2014.

Girard, Y. (1993), 'In-depth investigation of accidents: the experience of INRETS at Salon de Provence', 6th ICTCT workshop, Salzburg, Austria, October 1993,

Gruber, M., H. Kolk, E. Tomasch, F. Feist, C. Klug, A. Schneider, F. Roth, L. Audi, A. G. Germany, K. Shanmugam, M. Lindman, A. Fredriksson (2019), 'The Effect of P-AEB System Parameters on the Effectiveness for Real World Pedestrian Accidents', 26th International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles (ESV), Eindhoven, the Netherlands, 10–13 June 2019,

Hamdane, H., T. Serre, C. Masson, R. Anderson (2015), 'Issues and challenges for pedestrian active safety systems based on real world accidents', Accident Analysis and Prevention, 82, 53–60. DOI:

Haus, S. H., R. Sherony, H. C. Gabler (2019), 'Estimated benefit of automated emergency braking systems for vehicle-pedestrian crashes in the United States', Traffic Injury Prevention, 20(Supplement 1), S171–S176. DOI:

Helmer, T. (2014), 'Development of a Methodology for the Evaluation of Active Safety using the Example of Preventive Pedestrian Protection', Cham, Switzerland,

Hierlinger, T., T. Dindorfer, T. Neuhauser (2017), 'A method for the simulation-based parameter optimization of autonomous emergency braking systems', 25th International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles (ESV), Detroit, MI, USA, 5–8 June 2017,

INSIA-UPM, (n/d), 'Instituto Universitario de Investigación Del Automóvil Francisco Aparicio Izquierdo',

Isaksson-Hellman, I. (2012), 'A Study of Bicycle and Passenger Car Collisions Based on Insurance Claims Data', 56th Annals of Advances in Automotive Medicine (AAAM) Annual Conference, Seattle, WA, USA, 14–17 October 2012,

Isaksson-Hellman, I. (2011), 'Fotgängarolyckor [Pedestrian accidents]', If P&C Insurance, Internal report

Isaksson-Hellman, I., M. Lindman (2019), 'Real-world evaluation of driver assistance systems for vulnerable road users based on insurance crash data in Sweden', 26th International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles (ESV), Eindhoven, the Netherlands, 10–13 June 2019,

Isaksson-Hellman, I., J. Werneke (2017), 'Detailed description of bicycle and passenger car collisions based on insurance claims', Safety Science, 92, 330–337. DOI:

Jeppsson, H., M. Östling, N. Lubbe (2018), 'Real life safety benefits of increasing brake deceleration in car-to-pedestrian accidents: Simulation of Vacuum Emergency Braking', Accident Analysis & Prevention, 111, 311–320. DOI:

Klug, C., . L. Christoph, . M. Schachner, M. Rizzi, E. Grumert, R. Davidse, P. Heinzl, S. Iancovici, L. Wågström, M. Lindman, T. Thomson, A. Linder (2018), 'Current and future accident and impact scenarios for pedestrians and cyclists', Horizon 2020 project VIRTUAL, Deliverable D4.1

Kovaceva, J., A. Bálint, R. Schindler, A. Schneider (2019), 'Safety benefit assessment of autonomous emergency braking and steering systems for the protection of cyclists and pedestrians based on a combination of computer simulation and real-world test results', Accident Analysis & Prevention, 136, 105352. DOI:

Kullgren, A., K. Amin, C. Tingvall (2023), 'Effects on crash risk of automatic emergency braking systems for pedestrians and bicyclists', Traffic Injury Prevention, 24(S1), S111–S115. DOI:

Lesire, P., F. Léopold, C. Chauvel, V. Hervé, S. Cuny (2015), 'Implication of children in road accidents in France in 2011', 24th International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles (ESV), Gothenburg, Sweden, 8–11 June 2015,

Leslie, A. J., R. J. Kiefer, C. A. Flannagan, S. H. Owen, B. A. Schoettle (2022), 'Analysis of the Field Effectiveness of General Motors Model Year 2013-2020 Advanced Driver Assistance System Features', University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute, UMTRI-2022-2

Leslie, A. J., R. J. Kiefer, M. R. Meitzner, C. A. Flannagan (2021), 'Field effectiveness of general motors advanced driver assistance and headlighting systems', Accident Analysis & Prevention, 159, 106275. DOI:

Lindman, M., S. Jonsson, L. Jakobsson, T. Karlsson, D. Gustafson, A. Fredriksson (2015), 'Cyclists interacting with passenger cars; a study of real-world crashes', International Research Council on the Biomechanics of Injury, Lyon, France, 9–11 September 2015,

Lindman, M., A. Ödblom, E. Bergvall, A. Eidehall, B. Svanberg, T. Lukaszewicz (2010), 'Benefit Estimation Model for Pedestrian Auto Brake Functionality', Expert Symposium on Accident Research (ESAR), Hannover, Germany, 16–18 September 2010,

M Lindman, , L. Jakobsson, S Jonsson (2011), 'Pedestrians interacting with a passenger car: A study of real world accidents', International Research Council on the Biomechanics of Injury (IRCOBI), Krakow, Poland, 14–16 September 2011,

NHTSA, (2022), 'Crash Report Sampling System: Analytical User’s Manual, 2016-2021', National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT HS 813 436

Otte, D., C. Krettek, H. Brunner, H. Zwipp (2003), 'Scientific approach and methodology of a new in-depth-investigation study in Germany so called GIDAS', 18th International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles (ESV), Nagoya, Japan,

Paéz, F. J., A. Furones, A. Badea (2015), 'Benefits Assessment of Autonomous Emergency Braking Pedestrian Systems Based on Real World Accidents Reconstruction', 24th International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles (ESV), Gothenburg, Sweden, 8–11 June 2025,

PARTS, (2022), 'Real-world Effectiveness of Model Year 2015-2020 Advanced Driver Assistance Systems', Partnership for Analytics Research in Traffic Safety, 22-3734

PC-Crash, (n.d.), 'PC-Crash',

Rosén, E. (2013), 'Autonomous Emergency Braking for Vulnerable Road Users', International Research Council on the Biomechanics of Injury (IRCOBI), Gothenburg, Sweden, 11–13 September 2013,

Rosén, E., J. E. Källhammer, D. Eriksson, M. Nentwich, R. Fredriksson, K. Smith (2010), 'Pedestrian injury mitigation by autonomous braking', Accident Analysis and Prevention, 42(6), 1949–1957. DOI:

SAS, (n/d), 'SAS/STAT(R) 9.2 User's Guide',, accessed 2023-10-31.

Schachner, M., W. Sinz, R. Thomson, C. Klug (2020), 'Development and evaluation of potential accident scenarios involving pedestrians and AEB-equipped vehicles to demonstrate the efficiency of an enhanced open-source simulation framework', Accident Analysis & Prevention, 148, 105831. DOI:

Siebke, C., M. Bäumler, K. Blenz, M. Lehmann, M. Ringhand, M. Mai, G. Prokop (2023), 'Predicting the impact on road safety of an intersection AEB at urban intersections. Using a novel virtual test field for the assessment of conflict prevention between cyclists/pedelecs and cars', Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives, 17, 100728. DOI:

Spicer, R., A. Vahabaghaie, D. Murakhovsky, G. Bahouth, B. Drayer, S. St_Lawrence (2021), 'Effectiveness of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems in Preventing System-Relevant Crashes', SAE International Journal of Advances and Current Practices in Mobility, 3(4), 1697–1701. DOI:

Sui, B., N. Lubbe, J. Bärgman (2021), 'Evaluating automated emergency braking performance in simulated car-to-two-wheeler crashes in China: A comparison between C-NCAP tests and in- depth crash data', Accident Analysis and Prevention, 159, 106229. DOI:

Sui, B., N. Lubbe, J. Bärgman (2019), 'A clustering approach to developing car-to-two-wheeler test scenarios for the assessment of Automated Emergency Braking in China using in-depth Chinese crash data', Accident Analysis and Prevention, 132, 105242. DOI:

Tomasch, E., W. Sinz, H. Hoschopf, H. Kolk, H. Steffan (2015), 'Evaluation methodology of integral safety systems through a combination of testing and simulation using the example of pedestrian accidents', 10th VDI Vehicle Safety Conference - Safety 2.0, Berlin, Germany, 25–26 Novenvbber 2015,

Tomasch, E., H. Steffan (2006), 'ZEDATU (Zentrale Datenbank tödlicher Unfälle in Österreich): A Central Database of Fatalities in Austria', Expert Symposium on Accident Research (ESAR), Hannover, Germany, 1–2 Sept 2006,

Van_Der_Zweep, C., M. Wisch, T. Schaller, S. D. Hair, P. Lemmen (2014), 'Assessment methodologies for forward looking Integrated Pedestrian and further extension to Cyclists Safety', AsPeCSS, EC 7th Framework Programme project, Final report

Victor, T., E. Tivesten, P. Gustavsson, J. Johansson, F. Sangberg, M. L. Aust (2018), 'Automation Expectation Mismatch: Incorrect Prediction Despite Eyes on Threat and Hands on Wheel', Human Factors, 60(8), 1095–1116. DOI:

Volvo, (2016), 'V70/XC70 owner’s manual', Volvo Cars Sweden AB,

Volvo, (2016), 'XC90 Owners manual', Volvo Cars Sweden AB, .

Volvo, (2013), 'Volvo Car Group visar världsunik cyklistdetektering med full autobromsning på Genèvesalongen [Volvo Cars Group shows world-unique cyclist detection with full automatic braking at the Geneva Motor Show]', Volvo Cars Corporation,, accessed 3/11/2023.

Volvo, (2022), 'The new, fully electric Volvo EX90: the start of a new era for Volvo Cars', Volvo Cars Global Newsroom, Press release 305657, 9 November 2022

Wakeman, K., M. Moore, D. Zuby, L. Hellinga (2019), 'Effect of Subaru eyesight on pedestrian-related bodily injury liability claim frequencies', 26th International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles (ESV), Eindhoven, the Netherlands, 10–13 June 2019,

Wimmer, P., M. Düring, H. Chajmowicz, F. Granum, J. King, H. Kolk, O. Op_Den_Camp, P. Scognamiglio, M. Wagner (2019), 'Toward harmonizing prospective effectiveness assessment for road safety: Comparing tools in standard test case simulations', Traffic Injury Prevention, 20(Supplement1), S139–S145. DOI:

Wimmer, P., O. Op_Den_Camp, H. Weber, H. Chajmowicz, M. Wagner, J. L. Mallada, F. Fahrenkrog, F. Denk (2023), 'Harmonized Approaches for Baseline Creation in Prospective Safety Performance Assessment of Driving Automation Systems', 27th International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles (ESV), Yokohama, Japan, 3–6 April 2023,

Woolley, J., C. Kloeden, V. Lindsay, G. Ponte, J. McLean (2006), 'The Adelaide Metropolitan Indepth Crash Investigation Study 2002–2005', Australasian Road Safety Research, Policing and Education Conference, Surfers Paradise, QLD, Australia, 25–27 October 2006,

Yanagisawa, M., P. Azeredo, W. Najm, S. Stasko (2019), 'Estimation of potential safety benefits for pedestrian crash avoidance/mitigation systems in light vehicles', International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles (ESV), Eindhoven, the Netherlands, 10–13 June 2019,

Yue, L., M. Abdel-Aty, Y. Wu, O. Zheng, J. Yuan (2020), 'In-depth approach for identifying crash causation patterns and its implications for pedestrian crash prevention', Journal of Safety Research, 73, 119–132. DOI:

Zhao, Y., D. Ito, K. Mizuno (2019), 'AEB effectiveness evaluation based on car-to-cyclist accident reconstructions using video of drive recorder', Traffic Injury Prevention, 20(1), 100–106. DOI:



How to Cite

Isaksson Hellman, I., & Lindman, M. (2023). Estimating the crash reducing effect of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) for vulnerable road users. Traffic Safety Research, 4, 000036.